The commander must be able to concentrate his force at the adversary's point of main effort. Concentration not only implies massing of forces but also massing of firepower. It includes such elements as movement, flexibility, and communications. At the lowest levels, concentration includes siting weapons and creating fire plans to mass fire effects on the attacker. Concentration cannot be achieved by being strong everywhere. Trading ground for time, or economy of force elsewhere, may be necessary to obtain an advantage at a decisive point. The defender uses deception, concealment, counter-battery fire, screening forces, and AD in order to minimize the risks of vulnerability through concentration of force.
Commanders must maintain the offensive spirit in the defence. This implies manoeuvre, speed, and aggressiveness, the particular characteristics of armour. Patrolling and counterattacking are also elements of offensive action.
Security is the ability to meet an attack from any direction. It is achieved by the employment of covering forces, coordination and mutual support at all levels, maintenance of surveillance, and the ability to concentrate forces.
The defender will strive to avoid or counter the adversary's attacks, while preparing to seize the initiative and turn defensive operations to his advantage. This requires an ability to develop new plans rapidly, a willingness to shift the main effort, and a readiness to move swiftly to the offensive without loss of tempo.